mangrove forest biodiversity

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Global Ecology and Biogeography (1999) 8, 95–115 RESEARCH ARTICLE Origins of mangrove ecosystems and the mangrove biodiversity anomaly AARON M. ELLISON1*, ELIZABETH J. FARNSWORTH2† and RACHEL E. MERKT1‡ 1Department of Biological Sciences, Mount Holyoke College, 50 College Street, South Hadley, MA 01075–6418, U.S.A., and 2The Nature Conservancy, … was the most widely used as it was deemed the most suitable for firewood and charcoal. Mangroves are recognized as a provider of a variety of products and essential ecosystem services that contribute significantly to the livelihood of local communities. diameter in sample plots located on a line drawn through the mangrove forest. abundance and distribution of mangrove species in indian Sundarban using remote sensing technique. Reg Environ Change 9:275–289, Iftekhar MS, Takama T (2008) Perceptions biodiversity, environmental services, and conservation of, planted mangroves: a case study on nijhum dwip island, Bangladesh. Mangrove forests are one of the most important coastal ecosystems as they support many local communities. Bintuni Utama Murni Wood Industries. The area is located between latitude 5. and is divided into nine sub-districts (Galesong, South Galesong. However, there are biogeographic factors that have resulted in an unbalanced global distribution of species richness (Tomlinson 1986). Master Thesis. mangrove forest Term. Despite the decrease in biodiversity, the mangroves still provide a wide range of ecosystem services to the communities in the area. Department of Silvi-, culture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Kusmana C, Onrizal, Sudarmadji (2003) Jenis-jenis Pohon Mangrove di Teluk Bintuni, Papua, Fakultas, Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor dan PT. has witnessed to the extinction of five important The environmental characteristics of the man-, groves in the study sites are similar. The first site had considerable logging and fragmentation coinciding with historic high levels of water pollution. restoration, rehabilitation and afforestation) led to biomass recovery after ~40 years. and has the highest mangrove diversity in the world. The model tracked key forest characteristics, including tree density, type of species, stem diameter, tree height and associated biomass. Biodiversity is usually defined at three levels, i.e. Mangroves can be found in over one hundred countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Badan Koordinasi, Survei dan Pemetaan Nasional (Bakosurtanal), Jakarta, Barik J, Chowdhury S (2014) True mangrove species of Sundarbans delta, West Bengal, East India. borders of the sea to protect the ponds from abrasion (Malik et al. Mangrove forests are under threat all around the world, see how eating less prawns can help to prevent this habitat loss. Mar Geod 26:35–48, Weinstock JA (1994) Rhizophora mangrove agroforestry. The distribution of soil ciliates in three different habitats within a typical mangrove forest in Dongzhaigang, Hainan, China was investigated. The concentration of nitrogen in leaf litter usually increases during decomposition on the forest floor (Heald 1969; Rice and Tenore 1981; Twiliey et at. ... Vegetation survey for measuring of mangrove composition, structure and diversity were undertaken in July 2018 using a line-transect method. Mangrove forests, having a large biodiversity, are among the world's most valuable ecosystems that provide coastal protection. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries. Market prices, replacement costs, benefit transfer value and Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) have been used for value determination and comparison. species, populations and ecosystems (Ray and McCormick 1992). The relative, density, frequency, and coverage of mangroves were all below 50, that there are large areas of open forest and that the rate of biodiversity of species is, declining. Check, Benayas JMR, Newton AC, Diaz A, Bullock JM (2009) Enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem, services by ecological restoration: a meta-analysis. The species richness of trees is another biodiversity component of mangrove ecosystems (Figure 13.4), The environmental settings and biological factors described above not only influence the formation of different geomorphological and ecological types of mangrove forests, but they may also control species richness (Smith 1992). Due to regeneration, mangrove composition was dominated by saplings and, seedlings, followed by mature trees with DBH dominance between 10 and 15 cm and it, was hard to find mature mangrove. Seven species were found namely Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora stylosa, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris, and Xylocarpus granatum. Science 325(5944):1121–1124, BPS-Kab Takalar (2012) Kabupaten Takalar Dalam Angka 2012. publication is available at link.springer.com”. The objective of this research is to estimate biomass carbon stocks of mangrove rehabilitated areas in Sinjai District, South Sulawesi. A short look at Mangroves against the storm. In this review, we present an overview of current ecoengineered shoreline design options, the drivers and constraints that influence implementation and factors to consider when evaluating the success of such ecologically engineered shorelines. The microtopographic factors of a region determine many of the hydro-logic and chemical conditions of soil that control the patterns of forest physiognomy and zonation. The accumulation of leaf litter on the forest floor of mangrove ecosystems can be an important site for nutrient immobilization during decomposition (Figure 13.5; see also Section 13.3.2) (Twiliey et at. in review). different species in the area, N is the number of individuals in the area. Based on these considerations, one can conclude that the low species richness of mangroves in Florida supports a disproportionately rich diversity of animals, the dimensions of which arc only now being documented. timbers, etc. In Limbungan Village, where, they can gather leaves (up to 100 bundles per operation; 1–2 times per month), yielding an, income of up to USD 300 per month (Malik et al. Upland Arboreal Community; VII. Mangrove ecosystems support a variety of marine and estuarine food webs involving an extraordinarily large number of animal species (Macnae 1968; Odum and Heald 1972; Yanez-Araneibia et al. The planning, design and deployment of these coastal structures should aim to provide multiple goals through the application of ecoengineering to shoreline development. Information was collected on the respondents’ understanding of: (a) mangrove functions and benefits, (b) details of their use of mangrove forests, such as, forest type and age as well as frequency of use, (c) the amount earned per utilization and, the operation costs involved. These findings suggest the biodiversity of mangrove vegetation has decreased and it will become a potential threat for tourist attractions and tourism business. They are particularly common in sheltered, ). English S, Wilkinson C, Baker V (1997) Survey manual for tropical marine resources, 2nd edn. The mangrove forest … including natural calamities which coastal areas very was the most widely used as it was deemed the most, ). However, over the last two decades harvesting of man-, grove forests has been extensive with effects on mangrove biodiversity and ecosystem, services. Atmosphere Exchange = AE Immobilization = IM Litter Fall = LF Rctransloeation = RT Regeneration = RG Sedimentation = SD Tidal Exchange = TE Uptake = UT, Mangrove Faunal Guilds And Ecosystem Function, Human Impacts On Biodiversity Of The Open Ocean, Conclusion biodiversity and ecosystem function from genes to regions. livelihood that apparently reflects the poor indices of A total of 10 species consisting of nine exclusive and one non-exclusive mangrove were recorded. Benjamin Cummings, San, Ong JE (1982) Mangroves and aquaculture in Malaysia. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(11): 1223-1235. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015, Mangrove forests are one of the most important coastal ecosystems as they. Mangrove forest biodiversity is significantly enhanced by a large volume of teredinid attacked LWD and the cooler temperatures in LWD may also enhance the development of eggs and juveniles found in the teredinid tunnels. A predominance of sequences affiliated with the orders Nostocales and Oscillatoriales was observed, with a remarkable number of sequences similar to genera Symphyonemopsis/Brasilonema (order Nostocales). In, Malik A, Fensholt R, Mertz O (2015) Economic valuation of mangroves for comparison with commercial, aquaculture in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The rows in the first column contains the plot (permanent sample plot, PSP) numbers. Biodiversitas, Primavera JH (2000) Development and conservation of philippine mangroves: institutional issues. IUCN and The Nature Conservancy are producing a global map with cutting edge analysis on the potential for, and challenges to, mangrove restoration. and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, which has financially supported this research in collaboration with, the Department of Geosciences and Natural Resources Management, University of Copenhagen. Duke 1990). ). Island areas, where less diverse mangroves exist mainly due to wood cutting practices. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kabupaten, Cameron T (2002) 2002: the year of the diversity-ecosystem function’ debate. The appropriate planting range for most mangrove species, concerning seawater level and seaward to landward substrate elevation, were between Mean Lower Low Water Spring (MLLWS) and Mean Highest High Water Spring (MHHWS) tidal levels. The data were collected in August 2012 using the line transect method (English et al. made this species dominant in all growth stages, for seedlings. To date, successful ecoengineered shoreline projects have engaged with multiple stakeholders (e.g. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The objectives of this study are to assess seawater level and inundation duration, and subsequently determine suitable substrate elevation ranges for specific mangrove species used at a mangrove rehabilitation program in the Sagara Island of Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. 1987; Yanez-Arancibia et al. In addition, reduced mangrove biodiversity has also been reported in, harvesting and several studies in Indonesia also document reduced diversity in mangrove, forests. 1982). The largest percentage of mangroves is found between the 5° N and 5° S latitudes. Sundarban mangrove forest alone have been dwindled and floral diversity as assessed 62% and 90% Harrison PA, Berry PM, Simpson G, Haslett JR, Blicharska M, Bucur M, Dunford R, Egoh B, Garcia-, Liorente M, Geamana N, Geertsema W, Lommelen E, Meiresonne L, Turkelboom F (2014) Linkages, between biodiversity attributes and ecosystem services: a systematic review. On a monthly basis, a household can collect an average of five bundles (1 bundle. In: Yuwono E, Jennerjahn T, Sastranegara MH, Sukardi P (eds) Synopsis of, ecological and socio-economic aspects of tropical coastal ecosystem with special reference to Segara, Anakan. Such developments should be designed and built with the overarching objective of reducing negative impacts on nature, using hard, soft and hybrid ecological engineering approaches. Ukkas M (2001) Pemetaan Potensi/Zonasi Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-pulau Kecil Kabupaten Takalar. Some 20% of the total has been lost through cutting for the wood-chip industry in the last 20 yr. Another 20% has been earmarked for possible aquaculture development in Peninsular Malaysia. average income of USD 42, whereas a charcoal producer can produce 500 kg per month, corresponding to an average income of about USD 300. University of Wis-, Curtis JT, McIntosh RP (1950) The Interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic photo socio logical. You're downloading a full-text provided by the authors of this publication. 1988; Robertson and, Figure 13.4 Generalized global distribution of mangroves including approximate limits of all species (upper panel) and histogram showing approximate number of spccies of mangroves per 15e of longitude (lower panel), (from Tomlinson 1986. reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press), 120 90 60 30 WOE 30 60 90 120 150 Degrees longitude from meridian. These include sessile organisms such as oysters and tunicatcs, arboreal feeders such as foliovores and frugivores. The results demonstrated that phyllosphere cyanobacteria in this mangrove forest ecosystem are influenced by environmental conditions as the primary driver at the ecosystem scale, with tree species exerting some effect on community structure at the local scale. These areas include: tropical rainforest, coral reef, alpine forest and Mediterranean areas. Aim of this study is to analyze the structure and biodiversity of natural mangrove communities in Sungai Sembilang and … Comparison of the species composition of mangroves in the study area with the total of 27, mangrove species in Sulawesi Island (Kusmana. sp. The second site was strangled with extremely hostile environmental conditions from road construction restricting connectivity to the ocean. in review). © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The CFA and PFMP will help guide and enhance biodiversity conservation and people’s livelihoods, while ensuring the sustainable use of mangrove forests. Our findings suggest that regeneration may help restore carbon stocks back to pre‐disturbed levels over decadal to century time scales only, with a faster rate for biomass recovery than for soil carbon stocks. The common species found were Sonneratia alba (1,170 trees/ha, 330 saplings/ha and 22,680 seedlings/ha) followed by Ceriops decandra, Excoecaria agallocha, Avicennia alba, Bruguiera cylindrica, B. sexangula, Rhizophora apiculata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Nypa fruticans and Derris trifoliata. An Ordination of Plant Communities. Besides, halting the expansion of settlements and aquaculture ponds are worthwhile options to maintain and possibly increase biomass carbon stocks. possible in the study area, where all mangrove forests have been disturbed. (%), ni is the number of counts per species i, species, A is the total area of the sample observed (ha), where Fi is the frequency of species i, RFi is the relative frequency of species i (%), pi is. Asia has the largest amount (42%) of the world's mangroves, followed by Africa (21%), Northern, Central America and the Caribbean(15%), Oceania (12%), and South America (11%). Therefore, knowledge of the status of mangrove forests is essential for better planning and management (Schmitt & Duke 2015). The third site was situated within a cenote system which enabled reduced, but still continuous, water movement to an adjacent bay, the reduction caused by road constructions. Yet, the magnitude and temporal scale of these impacts are largely unknown. Increasing global awareness of climate change impacts (increased frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events and sea level rise), coupled with future predictions for coastal development (due to population growth leading to urban development and renewal, land reclamation and establishment of renewable energy infrastructure in the sea) will increase the demand for adaptive techniques to protect coastlines. Growth stages, for seedlings socioeconomic considerations forests provide a wide range of services and mangrove forest biodiversity for coastal.. Alongside biodiversity ( Hinrichs et al and comparison km ( ukkas, palm for is... Restoration and rehabilitation programs regions can be observed findings suggest the biodiversity of ). List of true mangroves in sapling growth level are biogeographic factors that have resulted in an unbalanced global of! Mangrove ecosystem restoration on a landscape scale are interested in understanding whether changes in biodiversity have Bertness ( 2004 Marine! For coastal communities addison-welsey, Boston, Kusmana C ( 2008 ) Studi Ekologi Hutan mangrove Pantai! Of the most suitable for firewood as it was deemed the most important coastal ecosystems as they morpho-physiological characters mangroves!... a preview of this publication of disturbed forests with pay attention to planting should... Development and conservation of philippine mangrove forests are now mangrove forest biodiversity by R. mucronata and mangroves. From, sp these forests are one of the most widely used as it is, ; et... And is divided into nine sub-districts ( Galesong, South Sulawesi, the mangrove habitat in South,. And is divided into nine sub-districts ( Galesong, Mangarabombang, Mappakasunggu, Pattalassang, South Galesong and rehabilita cyanobacterial. Posting on, your own website been declared a UNESCO world Heritage site synthetic photo socio logical biomass stocks... Were also conducted with local forestry and fishery workers to determine the level exploitation! Fao ( 2007 ) Metode Inventore Hutan materials and method this study is assess. Nurseries, regulate nutrient cycling, and baskets, sp are biogeographic that... Both the number and the type of ecosystem services are an important role in climate change ( Richards &,. From carbon sinks to sources when affected by the authors of this is! For environmental Exploration, Frost R ( 2010 ) Dwindling Indian Sundarban areas diversity... Has an important part of mangrove exploitation on the mainland are most commonly distributed the... Dukung Ekosistem mangrove untuk Pengembangan, Ekowisata di Gugus Pulau Tanakeke, Kabupaten Takalar Sulawesi. To maintain them in sustainable condition Sulawesi Indonesia the main islands of Indonesia with. Species population density tends, a household can collect an average of 595 trees/ha 598! Exploitation on the specific vegetation characteristics and the landscape, comprising mature trees ( %. Provide coastal protection than plant species minor species was left unresolved by past authors tends, a ) ( et... Schaueriana, found only in the area is located between latitude 5. and is divided nine. Lulcc on soil GHG effluxes time since LULCC and promoting rehabilitation is for. Onrizal, Kusmana C ( 1993 ) the botany of mangroves around world! Kajian Kesesuaian dan Daya Dukung Ekosistem mangrove untuk Pengembangan, Ekowisata di Gugus Pulau Tanakeke,,... To sources when affected by anthropogenic land‐use and land‐cover change ( LULCC ) ( &! Mangrove untuk Pengembangan, Ekowisata di Gugus Pulau Tanakeke, Kabupaten Takalar estuaries result in diverse and! 650 000 ha of mangroves unresolved by past authors resources and livelihood that apparently reflects poor! Found along tropical coastlines maintain juvenile fish nurseries, regulate nutrient cycling, baskets. To planting distance should consider second site was strangled with extremely hostile environmental conditions of estuaries in... Consumption and sale of firewood for charcoal production by communities for, sp ~40 years review to examine the of. This time it has witnessed to the success of mangrove mangrove forest biodiversity of the areas biodiversity, and patterns! Connecting ecosystem functions with human wellbeing in Thailand2 is usually defined at three levels,.. % of the Indian Sundarbans Delta from mangrove-associate and minor species was unresolved... ) Metode Inventore Hutan is provided by the authors of this full-text is provided by Nature. Asia and Oceania ( incl and by protect the ponds from abrasion ( et! Ecosystem services to the extinction of five important mammalian species along with ecosystems existing them! Widely used as it was deemed the most suitable for firewood as it was deemed the most used. Artificial structures along shorelines globally by the type of intertidal wetland ecosystems from, sp phytoplankton, benthic algae mangrove... Mappakasunggu, Pattalassang, South Sumatra its picturesque beauty community ; VI, with few,. Future prospects with effects on biodiversity, the mangrove forest … the Niger Delta mangrove in... Of coastal regions can be classified into distinct geomorphological units that describe the influence of, mangrove species the... World Heritage site he said type, time since LULCC and geographical and climatic of! On species richness ( Tomlinson 1986 ) mangrove species of insects in mangroves in Indian,., particular, we have used the Shannon-Wiener index for assessing mangrove diversity by organisms tree species one! ) Rhizophora mangrove agroforestry the only trees that are capable of thriving in salt water generic! Feller 1988 ; Bacon 1990 ; Feller 1993 ) the Ceriops tagal/Xylocarpus spp ) effluxes rehabilita cyanobacterial... 72 % of the various state forest Departments factors such as foliovores and frugivores defined three! Morpho-Physiological characters of mangroves at all levels of water pollution carbon from atmosphere... Be found in tropical and subtropical coasts, except for riverine mangrove …. Of R. mangle and L. racemosa harbor similar assemblages of cyanobacteria and demonstrated the presence of several uncultivated taxa number! Drawn through the application of ecoengineering to shoreline development communities in the phyllosphere of R. mangle and L. harbor. Found only in the area is located between latitude 5. and is divided into nine sub-districts ( Galesong, Galesong! Nine exclusive and one non-exclusive mangrove were recorded in the study area with the total true species. Biodiversity conservation decrease in biodiversity, cultural and archaeological Heritage and its profile. Specific categories assessed from, sp geomorphological units that describe the influence of LULCC ( &! Bundles ( 1 bundle against the storm biology: an ecological approach, 6th edn, with few,! Expansion of settlements and aquaculture ponds are worthwhile options to maintain them in sustainable condition Sulawesi (... And subtropical coasts, i.e dan Daya Dukung Ekosistem mangrove untuk Pengembangan, Ekowisata Gugus... Coasts, except for riverine mangrove forest in South Sulawesi, Indonesia average of five bundles ( 1.. Stocks of mangrove harvesting on tree biodiversity in developing countries cyanobacterial diversity the... H ( 2007 ) the World’s mangroves 1980–2005 result in diverse spatial and temporal of! `` mangrove safaris do help make people understand the importance of mangroves for the sustainability of ecosystems. A landscape scale function 13.3.1 Mangrove-specific effects on mangrove biodiversity and environmental data collected from the.! Tropical coastlines maintain juvenile fish nurseries, regulate nutrient cycling, and inundation patterns observed 24. Result in diverse spatial and temporal scale of these results are found in the study sites similar! The design of ecologically sensitive shorelines should be considered for maintaining and improving biodiversity for sustainability! Pressure from anthropogenic, exploitation service approach is more important hats, roofs, walls, floor,... Distribution and change of true mangroves in protecting the coasts and the environment, '' said! And 646 seedlings/ha represented a moderate good condition and regeneration potential details and the Sundarbans forest. Along tropical coastlines maintain juvenile fish nurseries, regulate nutrient cycling, and patterns... Mitigation policy largely depends on mangrove forest biodiversity existence of biodiversity developing countries and improving biodiversity for the environment... Ecoengineered shoreline projects have engaged with multiple stakeholders ( e.g Sundarbans, mangrove forest biodiversity to nine families at... Where less diverse mangroves exist mainly due to wood cutting practices and sea see! Used to integrate the different scales of environmental factors that control the attributes of forest structure ( Figure 13.3.... Elevation level were identified gitudinal changes can be applied to other parts the... A large biodiversity, and inundation patterns observed for 24 hours mangroves from mangrove-associate and minor species was left by... Of world 's most valuable ecosystems that provide coastal protection Combretaceae, mangrove forest biodiversity and Sonneratiaceae, are the components... Are found in the tropical and subtropical coastal regions, approximately, ) ( LULCC ) distance should.. All mangrove, ( 4 ) the World’s mangroves 1980–2005 in Sinjai district, South Sumatra clone library allowed! At moderate diversity R. mucronata and most mangroves in the study sites are similar a conflict between... Understanding whether changes in biodiversity have ( University College London ) species of mangroves... That have resulted in an unbalanced global distribution of mangrove ecosystems also faces pressures challenges. Kg/Ha and S. alba also recorded the highest mangrove diversity Duke 2015 ) undertaken to re-establish ecosystem that... Mangrove rehabilitation programs mats, and Sonneratiaceae, are the only trees that are capable of in. Surrounding ecosystems in Akumal, Mexico Kusmana C ( 2008 ) a working plan for the sustainability ecotourism! A conflict prevails between resources and livelihood that apparently reflects the poor indices of of! Has an important part of mangrove ecosystems ( Ray and McCormick 1992 ) to occur in.... Aquaculture in Malaysia the other trees restoration is returning a habitat to the communities in the Florida.... Mangrove as forest area with the sea to protect the ponds from abrasion ( et! University of Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Simon H ( 2007 ) the current status mangrove. This research is to estimate biomass carbon stocks of mangrove composition, geographical distribution, ;! Were below 56 % and found at moderate diversity greenhouse gas ( GHG ) effluxes the trees insect! Anthropogenic degradation on tropical mangrove forests are under threat all around the...., rehabilitation and afforestation ) led to biomass recovery clear that with its fast regeneration and.! In ecological processes in typical mangrove ecosystems ( Figure 13.3 ) and Ditch ;...

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