This is a very important feature of a weld since toes are points of high stress concentration and often they are initiation points for different types of cracks (eg fatigue cracks, cold cracks). Electrode Coating – The mixture of chemicals, minerals and metallic alloys applied to the core wire. Plunger – It is installed behind the removable seat in a plasma torch head to enable the safety interlock. Firstly, the surfaces are prepared before heat and pressure is applied and, finally, the materials are allowed to cool to create fusion. This means it can be applied across a number of industries from aerospace to nuclear power and automotive to rail. Flux Voids – Section of a flux cored electrode which contains no flux. It maintains a fixed distance from the torch tip to the workpiece. Arc Time – The time during which an arc is maintained in making an arc weld. Current Density – A measure of the degree of arc constriction achieved with a plasma torch. Distortion – All fusion welding methods produce the weld by moving a molten pool along the weld joint. No metal is actually cut. Too high a welding current can result in undercuts, an uneven weld convexity, burn-through, thermal cracking, an inappropriate merging angle with the body material and undercutting. Aging – Process of holding metals or alloys at room temperature after subjecting them to shaping or heat treatment, for the purpose of increasing dimensional stability or to improve their hardness and strength through structural changes, as by precipitation. Welder Certification – Written verification that a welder has produced welds meeting a prescribed standard of welder performance. Welding Symbol – A graphical representation of a weld. Ultimately, that “flame front” could end up at the gas source itself destroying parts and pieces along the way. Inclusion – Entrapped foreign solid material, such as slag, flux, tungsten, or oxide. Constant Voltage Power Source – An arc welding power source with a voltampere relationship yielding a large welding current change from a small arc voltage change. Welding is a process of joining of two metals, same or different with the application of heat and... Types of Welding Process. All metal melted during the making of a weld and retained in the weld. Arc Welding Electrode – A component of the welding circuit through which current is conducted and that terminates at the arc. MIG welding is one of the easier types of welding for beginners to learn. Arc Voltage – The voltage across the welding arc. Different processes are determined by the energy source used, with a variety of different techniques available. Backhand Welding – A welding technique in which the welding torch or gun flame is directed towards the finished weld. Standoff Distance – The distance between the outer most portion of the torch and the work surface. Stainless steel is considered a high alloy because it contains in excess of 10% chromium. Ferrite in Austenitic Stainless Steel – The magnetic finely dispersed crystal structure in austenitic steels that causes the austenite grains to become smaller and crack resistant. Workpiece – The piece of material to be cut or gouged. Arbide – The chemical combination of carbon with some other element. A resistance process that is used primarily for joining two or more metal sheets together by applying pressure and heat to the weld area. Voids can cause serious problems, especially in low alloy types. Could be a result of formulation as well. Cold Rolling – Reducing the cross-section of a metal by means of a rolling mill while the metal is cold or below its re-crystallization temperature. Hot Short – Metal that is brittle and unworkable above room temperature. Less oxidation generally makes slag more difficult to remove. Carbide Precipitation – The formation of chromium carbide in austenitic stainless steel that allows inter-granular corrosion in corrosive service. Stub – The short length of filler metal electrode, welding rod, or brazing rod that remains after its use for welding or brazing. Chemical formula for cementite is Fe3C. Fatigue Failure – The cracking, breaking or other failure of a material as the result of repeated or alternating stressing below the material’s ultimate tensile strength. Also called the depth of fusion. Face Reinforcement – Weld reinforcement on the side of the joint from which welding was done. An ideal weld or good weld should be such that adequate fusion exists between the filler metal and edge preparation together with good penetration. Every weld bead has two “toes”. Vertical Weld – The welding position in which the weld axis, at the point of welding, is approximately vertical and the weld face lies in an approximately vertical plane. There are again two sub-types of non-consumable electrodes: Carbon or Graphite electrodes: It is made up of carbon and graphite and mostly used in the applications of cutting and arc welding. This usually lowers the hardness and strength and increases the toughness of the steel. Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC) – An arc cutting process that uses a constricted arc and removes the molten metal in a high velocity jet of ionized gas issuing from the constricting orifice. Lack of Penetration – A nonstandard term for incomplete joint penetration. Globular – Refers to the arc transfer when you can see the globules burning off and falling into the puddle as opposed to a “smooth arc”. Preheating – The heating of parent metal prior to welding or cutting for the purpose of minimizing thermal shock and of slowing the cooling rate. Friction is frequently used in aerospace applications as it is ideal for joining otherwise 'non-weldable' light-weight aluminium alloys. Cladding – A surfacing variation that deposits or applies surfacing material usually to improve corrosion or heat resistance. Friction. (Also referred to as cut angle). Moderate arc energy is typical of Atom Arc. ft. Full Annealing – Heating of steels or iron alloys to above their critical temperature range, soaking at the annealing temperature until they are transformed to a uniform austenitic structure, followed by cooling at a predetermined rate, depending upon the type of alloy and structure required; in general the cooling rate is relatively slow. In fact, MIG welders … Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – An arc welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work. SCR Power Source – A type of power source that uses a semiconductor device known as the silicon controlled rectifier in the main power circuit. The manner in which the joining occurs is dependant on the exact process used, for example, friction stir welding (FSW), friction stir spot welding (FSSW), linear friction welding (LFW) and rotary friction welding (RFW). The method of controlling the transfer of the droplets by current pulses from the power source makes it possible to extend the spray range down. Professional, Industrial Submerged Arc Welding Equipment in Stock, Welding and Cutting Processes Information, Increase Your Vocabulary: A Guide to the Most Common Welding Terms - Workshop Welding. If heat used, the temperature in the process is below the melting point of the metals being welded. The main alloys in this steel are copper and chromium. Our staff have many, many years of knowledge and experience and want to share this with you! 6G Welding Positions-This is one of the hardest types of welding positions for welders to perform. Complete Joint Penetration – A joint root condition in a groove weld in which weld metal extends through the joint thickness. Bevel Angle – The angle formed between the cut surface and a theoretical plane perpendicular to the plate surface. Sulfur in steel causes a hot short condition. Preheating retards the cooling rate, allowing more time for the hydrogen to escape, which minimizes under-bead cracking. Root Reinforcement – Weld reinforcement opposite the side from which welding was done. Welding Types and Definitions Notes Welding Definitions. Arc Energy – References burn-off characteristics. The crystalline structure before stress relief through rolling or hammer forging. Arc. Radiographic quality – Soundness of a weld that show no internal or underbead cracks, voids or inclusions when inspected by X-ray or gamma ray techniques. This type of welding is also called stick welding. Metals are good conductors. Crater – A depression in the weld face at the termination of a weld bead. This usually involves heating, followed by relatively slow cooling of metals or alloys for the purpose of decreasing hardness and increasing the ease of machining or the cold-working characteristics. Push Angle – The travel angle when the electrode is pointing in the direction of weld progression. Pearlite – Eutectoid alloy of iron and 85% carbon consisting of layers or plates of ferrite and cementite. Induced Current or Induction – The phenomena of causing an electrical current to flow through a conductor when that conductor is subjected to a varying magnetic field. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Power Source – An apparatus for supplying current and voltage suitable for welding, cutting, etc. Seam welding is similar to spot welding except it replaces the electrodes with rotating wheels to deliver a continuous leak-free weld. It is sometimes referred to as cold cracking, since it occurs after the weld metal has cooled. Chip Test – A test used to identify a metal. Occurs when using shielding gases other than those consisting of at least 80% argon and at medium current settings. Atom – The smallest particle of an element that posses all of the characteristics of that element. Fillet Weld – A weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint. Solid State Welding: In this type of welding processes, the joining of two parts accomplished with the application of pressure alone or a combination of pressure and heat. In that regard, there’s manual, semi-automatic, and automatic. Proton – Positively charged particles which are part of the nucleus of atoms. Defect – A discontinuity or discontinuities that by nature or accumulated effected (for example total crack length) render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. 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