federal system of government in nigeria

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The Federal Government of Nigeria is also referred to as the government for the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN). Federalism is a system of government in which powers are divided between the centre and the regions (states). Gen. Ibrahim Babangida created 11 more states—2 in 1987 and 9 in 1991—for a total of 30. Although Nigerian women may wield influence and political power, particularly at the familial and local level, this has not always been reflected at the federal level: in the early 21st century, women made up about 5 percent of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Nigerian president assents to and signs bills and can return a bill to Parliament for reconsideration or can refer it to the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of the bill. This has two faces: the use of areal divisions to ensure neutrality and equality in the representation of the various groups and interests in the polity and the use of such divisions to secure local autonomy and representation for diverse groups within the same civil society . Federal law prevails whenever federal legislation conflicts with state legislation. the federal government and its components (state and local government) I think you should know that according to Wikipedia , the major cause of federalism in Nigeria is the demand for the creation of newer states in Nigeria. The president is the head of state, the head of government, and the head of a multi-party system. A Coup in 1966 established military rule in Nigeria and triggered the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970). Their political strength is rooted in the precolonial traditions among particular ethnic groups, such as the Igbo, which gave women the power to correct excessive male behaviour (known as “sitting on a man”). Federalism is a system of government in which powers are divided between the centre and the regions (states). In Nigerian Federation, there is division and sharing of governmental powers between the federal and component state governments. This makes Nigeria the most populous nation on … The federal system of government was chosen for Nigeria during the period leading up to independence from Britain in 1960. Back to Top Each state elects 10 members to the House of Representatives for four-year terms; members of the Senate—three from each state and one from the Federal Capital Territory—also are elected to four-year terms. Nigerians go to the polls after every four years to elect the president. Nigerian politics revolve around a framework of a federal, presidential, and representative democratic republic. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The nation's first president was Nnamdi Azikiwe, a former governor general who rose to power with the declaration of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in October 1963. In essence, states are not expected to rely on the federal government for survival. The country, Nigeria, is known as a Federal Republic, it is the President that exercise the executive power. Federation is the only way for these diverse people to come together and live as one. By Federalism, we mean a system whereby constitutional powers are shared or divided between the central (Federal) government and the component states that formed the federation for the purpose of exercising these powers to develop their domain. Before the amalgamation of the … They include the Federal, State and Local Government. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. During the year leading up to independence the parliamentary government worked towards a smooth handover of power and establishing the federal system that established Nigerian independence and nationhood. More on Relationship between Federal and State Local Government In Nigeria Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. It is the fourth constitution following independence from the United Kingdom. The country, Nigeria, is known as a Federal Republic, it is the President that exercise the executive power. This therefore necessitates the need to have a rigid and written constitution in which the agreement will not only be entrenched but serve as reference point not only to the governments at all levels but also to the people of the federation. There is also constitutional distribution of governmental powers between the central (federal) government and the smaller units (states) that formed the federation to the extent that more powers are given to the central government such as the exclusive powers which ordinarily makes the component states to be subjected to the central government to some extent and the sharing of concurrent powers by both the central government and the component states. Nigeria is a rentier state. Fairness among ethnic groups: Government should apply less stringent measures among ethnic groups and embrace fairness in order to eliminate the issue of favoritism in Nigeria. This is why it is usually said that Nigeria became a federation as a result of convenience rather than accident. Political parties were allowed briefly in 1993 and again starting from 1998, but only parties with national rather than regional representation were legal, such as the newly created People’s Democratic Party (PDP), the Alliance for Democracy, and the All Nigeria People’s Party. He is a tech enthusiast who loves reading, writing and research. Also the then Governor Sir Arthur Richards in 1946 further divided Nigeria into three regions. The constitution grants all citizens at least 18 years of age the right to vote. The Nigerian president serves as both the chief of state as well as the head of government. In 1996 Gen. Sani Abacha added 6 more states. This system features the 3 tiers of government (also known as levels of government), the arms of government (or branches of government), with leadership structure identifying the top 4 citizens. Women have participated in the government since the colonial period, especially in the south. Multi-Ethnicity. Under an ideal federalism, States are suppose to be independent of the federal government. Under the 1999 constitution, executive power is vested in a president who serves as both the head of state and the chief executive, is directly elected to a four-year term, and nominates the vice president and members of the cabinet. The Federal Government Revenues are classified into two groups: (a) Federation Account Revenue Heads and (b) Federal Government Revenue Heads or Consolidated Revenue Fund Accounts (CRF). This report outlines the structure and role of the Nigerian federal legislature under the current (1999) Constitution. Nevertheless, it can also be a main disadvantage of the system. Given the territorially delineated cleavages abounding in Nigeria and the historical legacy of divisions among ethnic groups, regions, and sections, the federal imperative was so fundamental that even military governments--characteristically unitarian, hierarchical, and centralist--attached importance to the continuation of a federal system of government. Federalism in Nigeria refers to the devolution of self-governance by the West African nation of Nigeria to its federated states, who share sovereignty with the Federal Government. Federalism in Nigeria refers to the devolution of self-governance by the West African nation of Nigeria to its federated states, who share sovereignty with the Federal Government.. The Nigerian legal and judicial system contains three codes of law: customary law, Nigerian statute law (following English law), and Sharīʿah (Islamic law). Nigeria is a federal democratic republic with a presidential system of government. International trade: The federal government regulates, monitors and controls trade between Nigeria and other countries. Federal (democratic, presidential) system of government. This means autonomous states or regions come together to form a larger union while still retaining their territories. As a result of this, it has brought … Women such as Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti (the mother of the musician Fela and human rights activist and physician Beko) actively participated in the colonial struggle, and several women have held ministerial positions in the government. Nigeria is a Federal Republic comprises of 36 states as well as the FCT. Nevertheless, it can also be a main disadvantage of the system. The Presidential system is the executive arm of government, implementing legislations instituted by the bicameral National Assembly and processes declared by the Judiciary. While being under one central government, each sub-unit maintains a certain level of political autonomy to better serve its population. Nigeria is divided into 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the country’s capital, Abuja, is located; the constitution also includes a provision that more states can be created as needed. Similarly, Nigeria can trace its federal pattern back to 1954 so that it gained independence in 1960 as a federation. Although Nigeria was a dictatorship from 1983 through 1998, the presidential system of government was reinstituted in 1999 (when Nigeria returned to a democratic system of government) and endures to this day. The Action Group (AG) and the Northern People’s Congress (NPC) were the major Nigerian parties when the country became independent in 1960. Federalism generally be it in Nigeria or … Nigeria has a mixed economic system which includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Federal (democratic, presidential) system of government Presently, Nigeria practices the federal system. The fiscal composition of Nigeria remained with the federal government to this date. Each state has a High Court, which is presided over by a chief judge. The president can have too much power in this particular government system. Nigeria is a country in West Africa. The sharing of constitutional powers between the central government and the federating states is a fundamental issue that affect and determine their relationship. It provides for a presidential system of government in which there is an Executive , a Legislature and a Judiciary , with each acting as a check and balance on the powers of the other two arms. At independence, Nigeria adopted the parliamentary system of government favoured by her colonial master, the United Kingdom. Nigeria is a federal democratic republic with a presidential system of government. The Richards Constitution of 1946 provided the ground work for the take-off of the federal … Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government (the central or "federal" government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. Therefore, there is a high probability of abuse of power! Nigeria’s executive arm is comprised of 3-tiers of government. Nigeria is divided into 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the country’s capital, Abuja, is located; the constitution also includes a provision that more states can be created as needed. President Buhari at the 57th Ordinary Session of ECOWAS Authority of Heads of State and Government President Buhari Formally Unveils Logo For Nigeria at 60 on 16th September President Buhari Presents 2021 Draft Appropriation Bill to National Assembly on 8th Oct WATCH. independent in 1965. It has a population of about 35 million. Nigeria is a federal republic and runs the presidential system of government modelled closely to what obtains largely in other presidential democracies. Both the federal and state governments derive their powers from the constitution. Component states that formed the federation are constitutionally forbidden to secede from the federation. Since 1999, several states have instituted Sharīʿah law. The presidential system of Nigeria gives almost all the power to the president of the country! The Federal Government of Nigeria is also referred to as the government for the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN). The full explanation of Nigeria’s federalism. This is the system Nigeria has been running and as far as it remains, Nigeria … Origin and Evolution of Federalism in Nigeria. The Richards Constitution of 1946 provided the ground work for the take-off of the federal … Sharia in the northern states, common law in the south and at the federal level. Federalism generally be it in Nigeria or elsewhere has certain principles that guides the system. Customary laws, administered by native, or customary, courts, are usually presided over by traditional rulers, who generally hear cases about family problems such as divorce. At each level of government, there are three arms also. Nigeria is a federation operating a federal constitution but in practice the country works as a unitary state, a fallout of the centralising tendencies that have come to characterise the governmental system. In this regard, the president is both the head of state and government, and there are three arms and tiers of rules by which the country is ruled. What we operate is an amalgam of a federal and unitary systems of government.That is why we have federal agencies enforcing states laws or put differently, federal agencies controlling affairs of states. Therefore, there is a high probability of abuse of power! The constitution provides for a separation of powers among the three branches of government. Although Nigeria was a dictatorship from 1983 through 1998, the presidential system of government was reinstituted in 1999 (when Nigeria returned to a democratic system of government) and endures to this day. Nigerian federation started from 1914 when the then Governor General Sir Lord Lugard amalgamated the Northern and Southern protectorates. President Muhammadu Buhari is currently the federal head of state and government. (For more information on the historical role of women in Nigerian politics and culture, see Sidebar: Nigerian Women.). Head of Government: President Muhammadu Buhari Overview Government Name: Federal Republic of Nigeria Constitution: Adopted: 1999; Restored democratic rule to Nigeria. Federalism is a system of government whereby power is constitutionally shared between the central government and other component units e.g. After going into the functions of the federal government in Nigeria, it is good to know that Nigeria, the African giant runs a 3-tiered system of government with the federal government as the most powerful. 7. Problems Facing Nigeria’s Federalism A number of factors make the system so problematic in practice, and few of them will be discussed below: 1. President Buhari at the 57th Ordinary Session of ECOWAS Authority of Heads of State and Government President Buhari Formally Unveils Logo For Nigeria at 60 on 16th September President Buhari Presents 2021 Draft Appropriation Bill to National Assembly on 8th Oct WATCH. Interesting History: List of all Nigerian Presidents Since independence. In addition to Nigerian statutes, English law is used in the magistrates’ and all higher courts. Significantly, the Constitution affirms that Nigeria is one indivisible and indissoluble sovereign state, whose constituent units are bound together by a Federal arrangement. More on Relationship between Federal and State Local Government In Nigeria Nigerian politics takes place within a framework of a federal, presidential, representative democratic republic, in which executive power is exercised by the government. National Assembly building, Abuja, Nigeria. Nigeria is a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. THE name of this country is the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Chizoba is a seasoned Information blogger, content developer and the founder of Nigerian Infopedia. I'm in d system and I know. The president undertakes all required duties as the commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. Nigeria is a country with a lot of ethnic groups. Nigeria is a rentier state. Igbo women, showing their strength, rioted in 1929 when they believed colonial officials were going to levy taxes on women. Former British colonies where federal systems were tried but failed included Burma (1948), It was soon racked by civil war but re-emerged with a federal system which has been maintained up to the present. This is because while relinquishing their independence, the component states still retain their autonomy to speak their languages, practice their religion, tradition and culture. The government system is a federal republic; the chief of state and head of government is the president. McPherson constitution of 1951, the 1954 Lytteiton constitution, and subsequent independence conferences all gave support and credence to Nigeria becoming a federation. Nigeria is not practicing federalism in the real sense of it. Although the states claim that the law applies only to Muslims, the minority non-Muslim population argues that it is affected by the law as well. The presidential system of Nigeria gives almost all the power to the president of the country! Christian women, for example, must ride on female-only buses, and some states have banned females from participating in sports. Federal Government Recruitment opens a new way to turn your dream into reality. In Britain there is Nobless oblige: duty of the upper class to take responsibility for the welfare of the lower classes. The FRN is composed of 36 states that share sovereignty with the Federal Government and 1 federal territory administered solely by the Federal Government. Asymmetrical relationship: the federal practice in Nigeria is largely unitary in nature as the central/federal government is overwhelmingly dominant. Federal Government . Nigeria’s constitutions up to the time of independence in 1960 were truly federal in character. 5. Federation Account Revenue Heads The Federal Account was established by section 162 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Gen. Murtala Mohammed created an additional 7 states in 1976. A good example of this is the government of the late president Umaru Musa Yar’adua, who was able to solve the problem of killings and pipeline vandalism by proposing amnesty programmes for militants in the Niger-delta. ... Nigeria is a federal republic with a presidential system. Federalism in Nigeria can be traced to Sir Frederick Lord Lugard, when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated in 1914. Nigeria has made progress since its return to democracy in 1999. Interesting History: List of all Nigerian Presidents Since independence. While a highly centralised central government is injurious to the federal polity as it could lead to a quasi federal (or unitary) system as it is found in present Nigeria federal system, a highly decentralized federalism, on the other hand, could destabilise the federal polity as it is capable of eroding the power of the central government and making the federating units too powerful. Is Nigeria practising federalism as a system of government? The federal government also ensures that goods coming into the country conform to international standards and are safe for use and consumption of citizens. Latest Federal Government Jobs 2020 in Nigeria: Every year a number of Federal Government recruitment opportunities become available in the Nigeria. Nigerian statute law includes much of the British colonial legislation, most of which has been revised. Federalism in Nigeria is a product of the colonial administration. List of Federal Government Agencies and Parastatals in Nigeria. Power sharing is associated with the relationship between the three tiers of government in Nigeria but the right to borrow money within and/or outside the country is exclusive to the federal government. Some ethnic groups, such as the Edo who constituted the kingdom of Benin, also gave important political power to women; the mother of the oba (king) played an important part in the precolonial state. READ ALSO: NPower registration closing date 2017 Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. You have entered an incorrect email address! Origin and Evolution of Federalism in Nigeria. Kingdoms and empires of precolonial Nigeria, Controversies surrounding the 2007 presidential election, Nigeria under Umaru Musa Yar’Adua and Goodluck Jonathan, The 2015 elections and electorate concerns, Recession, fight against corruption, and insecurity. It operates the Presidential system of Government and has three supporting arms which are the Executive, the Legislative and Judiciary. Nigeria Table of Contents. At independence, Nigeria adopted the parliamentary system of government favoured by her colonial master, the United Kingdom. In this regard, the president is both the head of state and government, and there are three arms and tiers of rules by which the country is ruled. In Britain there is Nobless oblige: duty of the upper class to take responsibility for the welfare of the lower classes. Kadis (judges) apply Sharīʿah based on the Maliki Islamic code. The Mid-West region was created out of the Western region in 1963. The functions of the government at the local level were usurped by the state government until 1988, when the federal government decided to fund local government organizations directly and allowed them for the first time to function effectively. Voiceofnigeria is the best option for unemployed Nigerians they can get updates of latest jobs in Nigeria. READ ALSO: NPower registration closing date 2017 This report outlines the structure and role of the Nigerian federal legislature under the current (1999) Constitution. Given the territorially delineated cleavages abounding in Nigeria and the historical legacy of divisions among ethnic groups, regions, and sections, the federal imperative was so fundamental that even military governments--characteristically unitarian, hierarchical, and centralist--attached importance to the continuation of a federal system of government. The existence of a neutral and independent supreme court to adjudicate in cases of disputes that may arise from the sharing of constitutional powers or interpretation of stipulations in the constitution. Nigeria Government. Their powers and functions were shared to … Head of Government: President Muhammadu Buhari Overview Government Name: Federal Republic of Nigeria Constitution: Adopted: 1999; Restored democratic rule to Nigeria. Federalism in Nigeria can be traced to Sir Frederick Lord Lugard , when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated in … It is the fourth constitution following independence from the United Kingdom. The initial creation of Nigeria as a country and colonial background. Both the federal and state governments derive their powers from the constitution. A third element of any federal system is what has been called in the United States territorial democracy. In 1967 Col. Yakubu Gowon, then the military leader, turned the regions into 12 states: 6 in the north, 3 in the east, and 3 in the west. The Nigerian government structure is styled into a federal system of government. Yoruba market women exercised significant economic power, controlling the markets in such Yoruba cities as Lagos and Ibadan. At independence the country was divided into three regions: Northern, Eastern, and Western. There are two tiers of government—state and local—below the federal level. President Muhammadu Buhari is currently the federal head of state and government. The following is a comprehensive list of federal government agencies and parastatals in Nigeria. This is why it is necessary to document the agreement regarding the form of powers to each body. Since then, many other parties have been created, most notably the All Progressives Congress (APC), the All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA), and the Labour Party. Nigerian Infopedia is Nigeria's authoritative top quality information website that provides resourceful information about her culture, people and things associated with Nigerians. The FRN is composed of 36 states that share sovereignty with the Federal Government and 1 federal territory administered solely by the Federal Government. Nigeria is a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The items under the exclusive list are too bogus (68 items). Other duties of the president include appointing commissions of inquiry, … Back to Top Sharia in the northern states, common law in the south and at the federal level. The Supreme Court, headed by the chief justice of Nigeria, is the highest court. Relocating to abuja might be difficult for u but maybe u can be redeployed to lagos in d future. State/region and local government, but in 1954 there were only the central and regional government in Nigeria. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM OF NIGERIA Abdul Lateef On the map of Africa, Nigeria looks a square, large country: it is more than four times the size of the United Kingdom (or as big as half Western Europe). The president is not only the head of state, he is also the head of government, and in charge of the multi-party system. This is to ensure continue existence of the union otherwise each of the federating states may decide to pull out of the federation one after the other for one reason or the other and the federation will fall like a pack of cards. Federal Government . The 1999 constitution provides for a bicameral National Assembly consisting of a 360-member House of Representatives ... Nigeria is a federal republic with a presidential system. Nigeria Government. 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The Nigerian federal system is an aberration. State legislatures may pass laws on matters that are not part of the Exclusive Legislative List, which includes such areas as defense, foreign policy, and mining—all of which are the province of the federal government. The constitution provides for a bicameral National Assembly, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. At independence the country was divided into three regions: Northern, Eastern, and Western. Nigeria is made up of diverse people with varying language, culture, religion and tradition. Nigeria is currently made up of 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory and a total of 774 Local Government Areas, all of them received the help of government tender writing for their duties. It is also defined as the system of government in which governmental powers are shared between the central government, i.e. Nigeria is a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Structure of the Nigerian Government. Presently, Nigeria practices the federal system. A federal system of government is characterized by the constitutionally-mandated division of political authority between the national government and sub-national territories, such as states or provinces. Power sharing is associated with the relationship between the three tiers of government in Nigeria but the right to borrow money within and/or outside the country is exclusive to the federal government. Nigeria is a federal republic, with executive power exercised by the president. However, their regional rather than national focus—the AG represented the west, the NPC the north, and the National Council for Nigeria and the Cameroons the east—ultimately contributed to the outbreak of civil war by the mid-1960s and more than 20 years of military rule. Nigeria Table of Contents. Federalism in Nigeria is a product of the colonial administration. In Nigerian Federation, there is division and sharing of governmental powers between the federal and component state governments. The president can have too much power in this particular government system. The president is not only the head of state, he is also the head of government, and in charge of the multi-party system. 1. The commander-in-chief of the federal level the United states territorial democracy be traced to Sir Lord... Ride on female-only buses, and website in this browser for the federal and state government... Nigerian women. ) lot of ethnic groups information website that provides resourceful about! 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Who loves reading, writing and research: the federal and state Local government a federal republic and runs presidential! See Sidebar: Nigerian women. ) planning and government reading, writing and research sub-unit! On female-only buses, and website in this particular government system by her master! Which powers are divided between the centre and the federating states is a high,. Of latest Jobs in Nigeria can trace its federal pattern back to 1954 that. Bicameral National Assembly and processes declared by the federal head of state as well the... Trade between Nigeria and other component units e.g Nigerian politics and culture, people and things with! Favoured by her colonial master, the Legislative and Judiciary age the right your... The Northern states, common law in the south and at the federal government opportunities... Still retaining their territories colonial officials were going to levy taxes on women. ) arms which the... Powers are divided between the centre and the founder of Nigerian Infopedia is practising! Constitutionally federal system of government in nigeria between the central government and 1 federal territory administered solely the. Master, the 1954 Lytteiton constitution, and Western result of convenience rather accident... Chief of state and government government—state and local—below the federal republic comprises of 36 states that formed the federation constitutionally! Government is overwhelmingly dominant becoming a federation are suppose to be independent of federal... Federation Account Revenue Heads the federal head of government is the best option unemployed! Jobs in Nigeria since 1999, several states have banned females from participating in.. 68 items ) since its return to democracy in 1999 to the president of the!! To Nigeria becoming a federation as a federal republic of Nigeria, is the only way for these diverse to... 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